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Install Tomcat 7 on Debian (Lenny) with virtual hosts and Apache2 integration

Please see new version Tomcat 8 on Debian 7 here !


Dieser Artikel ist eine überarbeitete Version meines Tomcat 6 Artikels. Es soll Tomcat 7 unter Debian Lenny installiert werden und mit mehreren virtuellen Hosts betrieben werden. Tomcat 7 ist unter Debian leider nicht über die Quellen zu beziehen, deshalb muss er manuell installiert werden.This article is a new version of my Apache Tomcat 6 article. This article describes how to install Apache Tomcat 7 on Debian Lenny, Apache2 integration and virtual hosts. Tocat 7 is not available over the regular sources on Debain Lenny (and Etch) it need to be installed by hand.

Tomcat 7 ist aktuell noch BETA. Für produktive Server sollte man lieber noch auf Tomcat 6 zurückgreifen.Tomcat 7 is still BETA. Please use Tomcat 6 for productive servers.

1. Install Java 6 runtime:1. Installation von Java 6 runtime:

Choose one of the following Java JDK installations:Eine der folgenden Java JDK Installationen wählen:

1.1 OpenJDK

aptitude install openjdk-6-jre

1.2 Sun Java (non-free)

vim /etc/apt/sources
deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/ lenny main non-free
deb-src http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian/ lenny main non-free
aptitude update
aptitude install sun-java6-jre

Note: Keep in mind that you need a different Apache connector configuration if you use the Sun JDK.Bemerkung: Nicht vergessen, dass eine andere Konfiguration beim Apache-Connector erforderlich sein wird, sollte Sun JDK verwendet werden.

2. Download Tomcat

Download Tomcat 7 fromvon der Tomcat 7 Download pageSeite.

For example:Zum Beispiel:

wget http://artfiles.org/apache.org/tomcat/tomcat-7/v7.0.5-beta/bin/apache-tomcat-7.0.5.tar.gz

3. Install Tomcat3. Installation von Tomcat

tar -xzvf apache-tomcat-7.0.5.tar.gz
mv apache-tomcat-7.0.5 /opt/tomcat

4. Create tomcat user and group4. Tomcat Benutzer und Gruppe anlegen

groupadd tomcat
useradd -g tomcat -d /opt/tomcat tomcat
usermod -G www-data tomcat
chown tomcat:tomcat /opt/tomcat -R

This create a new user “tomcat” and a group “tomcat”. It set the home directory for this user to “/opt/tomcat” and join the “tomcat” user the “www-data” group. This is necessary to access the virtual hosts. Finally give the “/opt/tomcat” directory to the new “tomcat” user.Dies legt einen neuen Benutzer “tomcat” und eine neue Gruppe “tomcat” an. Außerdem wird das Home-Directory dieses Benutzers auf “/opt/tomcat” gesetzt. Der Benutzer wird außerdem in die Gruppe “www-data” verschoben. Dies ist notwendig um Zugriff auf die virtuellen Hosts des Apaches zu haben. Zum Schluss werden dem neuen Benutzer “tomcat” noch die Besitzrechte für den Ordner “/opt/tomcat” übertragen.

5. Create Init-Script5. Init-Skript erstellen

vim /etc/init.d/tomcat
#!/bin/sh
#
# /etc/init.d/tomcat -- startup script for the Tomcat 7 servlet engine
#
# Modified init-Script from Ubuntu Tomcat init-script
#
# 2010 - Sebastian Mogilowski - http://www.mogilowski.net
#
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          tomcat
# Required-Start:    $local_fs $remote_fs $network
# Required-Stop:     $local_fs $remote_fs $network
# Should-Start:      $named
# Should-Stop:       $named
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: Start Tomcat.
# Description:       Start the Tomcat servlet engine.
### END INIT INFO

set -e

PATH=/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/opt/tomcat
NAME=tomcat
DESC="Tomcat servlet engine"
DEFAULT=/etc/default/$NAME
JVM_TMP=/tmp/tomcat-tmp

if [ `id -u` -ne 0 ]; then
	echo "You need root privileges to run this script"
	exit 1
fi

# Make sure tomcat is started with system locale
if [ -r /etc/default/locale ]; then
	. /etc/default/locale
	export LANG
fi

. /lib/lsb/init-functions

if [ -r /etc/default/rcS ]; then
	. /etc/default/rcS
fi


# The following variables can be overwritten in $DEFAULT

# Run Tomcat 7 as this user ID and group ID
TOMCAT_USER=tomcat
TOMCAT_GROUP=tomcat

# The first existing directory is used for JAVA_HOME (if JAVA_HOME is not
# defined in $DEFAULT)
JDK_DIRS="/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk /usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-sun /usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-sun /usr/lib/j2sdk1.5-ibm"

# Look for the right JVM to use
for jdir in $JDK_DIRS; do
    if [ -r "$jdir/bin/java" -a -z "${JAVA_HOME}" ]; then
	JAVA_HOME="$jdir"
    fi
done
export JAVA_HOME

# Directory where the Tomcat binary distribution resides
CATALINA_HOME=/opt/$NAME

# Directory for per-instance configuration files and webapps
CATALINA_BASE=/opt/$NAME

# Use the Java security manager? (yes/no)
TOMCAT_SECURITY=no

# Default Java options
# Set java.awt.headless=true if JAVA_OPTS is not set so the
# Xalan XSL transformer can work without X11 display on JDK 1.4+
# It also looks like the default heap size of 64M is not enough for most cases
# so the maximum heap size is set to 128M
if [ -z "$JAVA_OPTS" ]; then
	JAVA_OPTS="-Djava.awt.headless=true -Xmx128M"
fi

# End of variables that can be overwritten in $DEFAULT

# overwrite settings from default file
if [ -f "$DEFAULT" ]; then
	. "$DEFAULT"
fi

if [ ! -f "$CATALINA_HOME/bin/bootstrap.jar" ]; then
	log_failure_msg "$NAME is not installed"
	exit 1
fi

POLICY_CACHE="$CATALINA_BASE/work/catalina.policy"

if [ -z "$CATALINA_TMPDIR" ]; then
	CATALINA_TMPDIR="$JVM_TMP"
fi

# Set the JSP compiler if set in the tomcat.default file
if [ -n "$JSP_COMPILER" ]; then
	JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dbuild.compiler=\"$JSP_COMPILER\""
fi

SECURITY=""
if [ "$TOMCAT_SECURITY" = "yes" ]; then
	SECURITY="-security"
fi

# Define other required variables
CATALINA_PID="/var/run/$NAME.pid"
CATALINA_SH="$CATALINA_HOME/bin/catalina.sh"

# Look for Java Secure Sockets Extension (JSSE) JARs
if [ -z "${JSSE_HOME}" -a -r "${JAVA_HOME}/jre/lib/jsse.jar" ]; then
    JSSE_HOME="${JAVA_HOME}/jre/"
fi

catalina_sh() {
	# Escape any double quotes in the value of JAVA_OPTS
	JAVA_OPTS="$(echo $JAVA_OPTS | sed 's/\"/\\\"/g')"

	AUTHBIND_COMMAND=""
	if [ "$AUTHBIND" = "yes" -a "$1" = "start" ]; then
		JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true"
		AUTHBIND_COMMAND="/usr/bin/authbind --deep /bin/bash -c "
	fi

	# Define the command to run Tomcat's catalina.sh as a daemon
	# set -a tells sh to export assigned variables to spawned shells.
	TOMCAT_SH="set -a; JAVA_HOME=\"$JAVA_HOME\"; source \"$DEFAULT\"; \
		CATALINA_HOME=\"$CATALINA_HOME\"; \
		CATALINA_BASE=\"$CATALINA_BASE\"; \
		JAVA_OPTS=\"$JAVA_OPTS\"; \
		CATALINA_PID=\"$CATALINA_PID\"; \
		CATALINA_TMPDIR=\"$CATALINA_TMPDIR\"; \
		LANG=\"$LANG\"; JSSE_HOME=\"$JSSE_HOME\"; \
		cd \"$CATALINA_BASE\"; \
		\"$CATALINA_SH\" $@"

	if [ "$AUTHBIND" = "yes" -a "$1" = "start" ]; then
		TOMCAT_SH="'$TOMCAT_SH'"
	fi

	# Run the catalina.sh script as a daemon
	set +e
	touch "$CATALINA_PID" "$CATALINA_BASE"/logs/catalina.out
	chown $TOMCAT_USER "$CATALINA_PID" "$CATALINA_BASE"/logs/catalina.out
	start-stop-daemon --start -b -u "$TOMCAT_USER" -g "$TOMCAT_GROUP" \
		-c "$TOMCAT_USER" -d "$CATALINA_TMPDIR" \
		-x /bin/bash -- -c "$AUTHBIND_COMMAND $TOMCAT_SH"
	status="$?"
	set +a -e
	return $status
}

case "$1" in
  start)
	if [ -z "$JAVA_HOME" ]; then
		log_failure_msg "no JDK found - please set JAVA_HOME"
		exit 1
	fi

	if [ ! -d "$CATALINA_BASE/conf" ]; then
		log_failure_msg "invalid CATALINA_BASE: $CATALINA_BASE"
		exit 1
	fi

	log_daemon_msg "Starting $DESC" "$NAME"
	if start-stop-daemon --test --start --pidfile "$CATALINA_PID" \
		--user $TOMCAT_USER --exec "$JAVA_HOME/bin/java" \
		>/dev/null; then

		# Regenerate POLICY_CACHE file
		umask 022
		echo "// AUTO-GENERATED FILE from /opt/tomcat/" \
			> "$POLICY_CACHE"
		echo ""  >> "$POLICY_CACHE"
		cat $CATALINA_BASE/conf/*.policy \
			>> "$POLICY_CACHE"

		# Remove / recreate JVM_TMP directory
		rm -rf "$JVM_TMP"
		mkdir -p "$JVM_TMP" || {
			log_failure_msg "could not create JVM temporary directory"
			exit 1
		}
		chown $TOMCAT_USER "$JVM_TMP"

		catalina_sh start $SECURITY
		sleep 5
        	if start-stop-daemon --test --start --pidfile "$CATALINA_PID" \
			--user $TOMCAT_USER --exec "$JAVA_HOME/bin/java" \
			>/dev/null; then
			if [ -f "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
				rm -f "$CATALINA_PID"
			fi
			log_end_msg 1
		else
			log_end_msg 0
		fi
	else
	        log_progress_msg "(already running)"
		log_end_msg 0
	fi
	;;
  stop)
	log_daemon_msg "Stopping $DESC" "$NAME"

	set +e
	if [ -f "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
		start-stop-daemon --stop --pidfile "$CATALINA_PID" \
			--user "$TOMCAT_USER" \
			--retry=TERM/20/KILL/5 >/dev/null
		if [ $? -eq 1 ]; then
			log_progress_msg "$DESC is not running but pid file exists, cleaning up"
		elif [ $? -eq 3 ]; then
			PID="`cat $CATALINA_PID`"
			log_failure_msg "Failed to stop $NAME (pid $PID)"
			exit 1
		fi
		rm -f "$CATALINA_PID"
		rm -rf "$JVM_TMP"
	else
		log_progress_msg "(not running)"
	fi
	log_end_msg 0
	set -e
	;;
   status)
	set +e
	start-stop-daemon --test --start --pidfile "$CATALINA_PID" \
		--user $TOMCAT_USER --exec "$JAVA_HOME/bin/java" \
		>/dev/null 2>&1
	if [ "$?" = "0" ]; then

		if [ -f "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
		    log_success_msg "$DESC is not running, but pid file exists."
			exit 1
		else
		    log_success_msg "$DESC is not running."
			exit 3
		fi
	else
		log_success_msg "$DESC is running with pid `cat $CATALINA_PID`"
	fi
	set -e
        ;;
  restart|force-reload)
	if [ -f "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
		$0 stop
		sleep 1
	fi
	$0 start
	;;
  try-restart)
        if start-stop-daemon --test --start --pidfile "$CATALINA_PID" \
		--user $TOMCAT_USER --exec "$JAVA_HOME/bin/java" \
		>/dev/null; then
		$0 start
	fi
        ;;
  *)
	log_success_msg "Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart|try-restart|force-reload|status}"
	exit 1
	;;
esac

exit 0

Download the init-script:Herrunterladen des Init-Skripts: Tomcat 7 Init-Script (2.6 kB)

chmod +x /etc/init.d/tomcat
update-rc.d tomcat defaults

6. Activate the Tomcat manager6. Aktivieren des Tomcat Managers

vim /opt/tomcat/conf/tomcat-users.xml
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<tomcat-users>
    <role rolename="manager"/>
    <role rolename="manager-gui"/>
    <role rolename="admin"/>
    <role rolename="admin-gui"/>
    <user username="YOUR_USERNAME" password="YOUR_PASSWORD" roles="admin,admin-gui,manager,manager-gui"/>
</tomcat-users>

6. Start Tomcat

/etc/init.d/tomcat start

Now you can access the Tomcat manager with http://SERVER:8080/manager.Nun kann man den Tomcat Manager mit http://SERVER:8080/manager aufrufen.

7. Install Apache2 connector7. Installation des Apache2 Connectors

Tomcat besitzt zwar einen eingebauten Webserver, jedoch ist der Apache2 Webserver wesentlich leistungsfähiger außerdem sind so die Apache Module verwendbar. (mod_rewrite zum Beipiel)You can use the Tomcat as a standalone webserver, but the apache webserver has more features and you can use the apache modules. (mod_rewrite for example)

aptitude install apache2 libapache2-mod-jk

7.1 Apache worker7.1 Apache worker

vim /etc/apache2/workers.properties
workers.tomcat_home=/opt/tomcat
workers.java_home=/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk
ps=/
worker.list=default
worker.default.port=8009
worker.default.host=localhost
worker.default.type=ajp13
worker.default.lbfactor=1

Note: Replace “/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk” with “/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun” if you using the non-free Sun Java runtime.Bemerkung: Falls die non-free Java Runtime von Sun verwendet wird, muss “/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-openjdk” durch “/usr/lib/jvm/java-6-sun” ersetzt werden.

7.2 JK Konfigurationsdatei7.2 JK configuration file

vim /etc/apache2/conf.d/jk.conf
<ifmodule mod_jk.c>
    JkWorkersFile /etc/apache2/workers.properties
    JkLogFile /var/log/apache2/mod_jk.log
    JkLogLevel error
</ifmodule>
/etc/init.d/apache2 stop
/etc/init.d/tomcat restart
/etc/init.d/apache2 start

8. Create a new VirtualHost8. Neuen Virtuellen Host anlegen

Nun soll ein neuer VirtualHost angelegt werden. Dieser muss im Apache und im Tomcat angelegt werden.Creating a new VirtualHost: (In Apache AND Tomcat)

8.1 Create directories8.1 Verzeichnisse anlegen

mkdir /var/www/vhost1
mkdir /var/www/vhost1/htdocs
mkdir /var/www/vhost1/logs
vim /etc/apache2/sites-available/vhost1

8.2 Apache

<virtualhost www.testsrv.local>
    JkMount /*.jsp default
    ServerName www.testsrv.local
    ServerAdmin servermaster@testsrv.local
    DocumentRoot /var/www/vhost1/htdocs
    ErrorLog /var/www/vhost1/logs/error.log
    CustomLog /var/www/vhost1/logs/access.log common
    <directory /var/www/vhost1/htdocs>
        Options -Indexes
    </directory>
</virtualhost>

Bemerkung: Man könnte auch alle Dateien an den Tomcat weiterleiten “JkMount /*” oder alle Dateien innerhalb eines Verzeichnisses “JkMount /folder/*”.Note: You can forward all files “JkMount /*” or all files in a folder “JkMount /folder/*” to the Tomcat, too.

a2ensite vhost1
/etc/init.d/apache2 reload

8.3 Tomcat

vim /opt/tomcat/conf/server.xml
<!-- www.testsrv.local -->
<Host name="www.testsrv.local" appBase="/var/www/vhost1" unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
    <Context path="" docBase="htdocs" debug="0" reloadable="true"/>
    <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="/var/www/vhost1/logs"  prefix="tomcat_access_" suffix=".log" pattern="common" resolveHosts="false"/>
</Host>

Note: Make sure you use a uppercase “H”, “C” and “V” for “Host”, “Content” and “Value”. This is importand since Tomcat 7.Bemerkung: Bitte sicherstellen, dass das “H”, “C” und “V” von “Host”, “Content” und “Value” groß geschrieben sind. Dies ist wichtig seit Version 7 von Tomcat.

/etc/init.d/tomcat restart

Note: You can add additional domains with:Bemerkung: Man kann weitere Domains mit:

<Alias>additionaldomain.com</Alias>

hinzufügen.

9. Create a Testpage9. Testseite anlegen

vim /var/www/vhost1/htdocs/test.jsp
<html>
    <head>
        <title>Hello World</title>
    </head>
    <body>
        <h1>Hello World</h1>
        Today is: <%= new java.util.Date().toString() %>
    </body>
</html>

Now you can test your configuration with http://www.testsrv.local/test.jspNun kann man durch den Aufruf von http://www.testsrv.local/test.jsp die Konfiguration/Installation testen.

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